Background: In developing countries, integration of traditional medicine into national health care system has renewed interest. Cost, accessibility, emergence of antimicrobial resistance, side effects and so forth are multiple reasons. Therefore, scientific validation of traditional pharmacopoeia is critically needed. In this work, antimicrobial activity of nine medicinal plants was carried out on five bacterial and two fungal strains involved in dermatoses.
Aim: To investigate antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants used in the traditional treatment of dermatoses. Materials and Methods: Plant materials were constituted of leaves, stems and root barks. They were macerated in organic solvents and water. Organic supernatants were dried by evaporation using a rotavapor and aqueous extracts were freezedried. Tested microorganisms were constituted of five bacteria whose three Gram positive and two Gram negative, and two fungi. Antimicrobial activity screening was carried out by disc diffusion method. Microdilution method was used to determine minimal inhibitrice concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of active extracts.
Results: Twenty-eight extracts from eight plants have shown inhibitory activity on tested strains. Among investigated plants, seven have shown good antibacterial activity on tested cocci. Leaf ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis and hydro alcoholic extract of root barks of Opilia celtidifolia were the most actives with MIC of 0.063 and 0,030 mg/mL on S. pyogenes and S. aureus respectively. The leaf extracts of Lannea acida and Lawsonia inermis were active on Candida tropicalis with 7.81 and 2.34 mg/mL as MIC, respectively. Gram negative bacteria were less susceptible.
Conclusion: Results allow to justify traditional use of these plants in the treatment of skin infection. Other biological activities like anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities will be performed, and extracts with best activities will be used for skin ointment formulation.