Title : Impact of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Anthocleista schweinfurthii Gilg (Loganiaceae) on some parameters of the reproductive function of adult Albino male rats
Background and Objective: such forms of medicine as the modern medicine and traditional medicine have been practiced in the world to alleviate and treat diseases. However, some drugs used for certain diseases have deleterious effects on other systems and functions of the body. This study aims to investigate the impact of the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Anthocleista schweinfurthii on some parameters of the reproductive function of adult albino male rats and to perform the phytochemical screening of the extract.
Methods: to achieve this objective, 18 male rats aged 60 days and weighting 150 g were divided into three groups of six rats each and were daily treated orally during 28 days with: distilled water (10 mL/kg) for group 1(control group), aqueous extract of A. schweinfurthii at respective doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg for groups 2 and 3 (the two test groups). At the end of 28 days period, animals were anesthetized and decapitated. Blood samples were collected for serum analysis. Some androgens dependent organs were collected and weighted. The epididymis sperm was collected for evaluation of sperm count, mobility and viability. A sample of each organ (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle) was homogenised for biochemical analysis and another parts were kept in the Bouin’s solution for histological examinations.
Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many secondary plant metabolites among which alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins in the extract. The results obtained show that the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of the relative weight of the testis, the epididymis and the seminal vesicles. It has also been observed a reduction in sperm density, mobility and viability. The rates of testicular, seminal vesicle and epididymal proteins, serum cholesterol and seminal vesicle fructose decreased significantly. Otherwise, plant extracts increased testicular cholesterol concentration. Anthocleista schweinfurthii caused a significant decrease in serum gonadotrophin levels (LH, FSH) and serum testosterone concentrations and an improvement of parameters of oxidative stress. In addition, an alteration in the structure of the androgens dependents organs was depicted on the histological sections.
Conclusion: From these findings, it is concluded that Anthocleista schweinfurthii stem bark alters some parameters of the reproductive function of adult albino male rats and suggest a limitation of their use in male subjects.